Making Uruguays' 300,000 XO Laptops Count


As I described in an earlier article, the first two years of the OLPC deployment in Uruguay "have been characterized by implementation and incubation. The laptops have been deployed to schools, manuals have been created, tech savvy volunteer groups have been formed, wireless internet connections have been established, teachers have slowly learned how to implement the laptops into their curricula and classrooms, and, as Rezwan has covered previously, a community of open source programmers has developed educational applications for the laptops."

Last week I visited Uruguay myself to witness how teachers and students were incorporating laptops and wi-fi connections (now in over 1,000 schools) into the classroom environment. My first gray blistery morning in Montevideo I joined a van full of professors and students from the Universidad de la República who were headed to Santa Lucía, a small town in the department of Canelones just an hour's drive from the capital.

Uruguayan XO gang sign

After a few accidental detours and several thermoses of mate tea, we pulled up to Santa Lucía's one and only primary school. Dozens of primary school students in white frocks were sitting on steps and tree trunks with their XO laptops, pecking away as if they were in a wi-fi café in Tokyo or New York City.

Santa Lucía's "Escuela 104″ (every school in Uruguay is given a number) teaches all of the town's young students in morning and afternoon shifts. That is, half of Santa Lucía's students come early in the morning and stay until lunch, and the other half arrive in the afternoon and stay until the early evening. When Pablo Flores, a professor of engineering at the Universidad de la República and a coordinator of Flor de Ceibo, asked the school's teachers if they had any problems or complaints regarding the XO laptops, one immediately responded, "the kids hang around here all day long. We can't get them to go home. Is there anything you can do to helps us?"

Pablo later told me that such reactions are typical during his frequent visits to schools around the country. However, while I found the comment to be entertaining, Pablo smiled softly with discouragement. On the way to Santa Lucías several of the volunteer students from the Universidad de la República shared their stories of teachers who felt threatened by the presence of the laptops in their classrooms. The younger teachers, they all agreed, tended to embrace the change and try to incorporate the laptops as much as possible into the classroom environment.

But some of the older teachers felt that their position of authority in the classroom was threatened by the presence of the laptops and the power they gave the young students. As many university professors have discovered in recent years, laptops and internet connections in the classroom often lead to students chatting behind the professor's back. Or, as George Landow put it in Hypertext 3.0, "Technology always empowers someone. It empowers those who possess it, those who make use of it, and those who have access to it."

I do not want to overstate the point. After all, this particular morning we were in the school's humble computer lab surrounded by eight or so teachers who all took time out of their busy schedules to learn more about the XO laptops and how they can make better use of them in the classroom. They were eager to learn and quick to make entertaining jokes about their frustrations with the new technologies. I imagined myself as a primacy school instructor - with over 20 years of teaching experience - having to learn new teaching techniques from volunteer university students who have never experienced the enormous challenge of keeping a classroom in order.

We were in Santa Lucía to give workshops explaining how to use the EduBlog blogging platform developed by a team of Uruguayan and American programmers. The XO laptops have been great at bringing information from the wider world to Uruguayan students, thanks to projects like Wikipedia and Conozco Uruguay, both of which come pre-installed on the machines. But, as Pablo explained to the gathered teachers, the laptops also permit Uruguayans to contribute content, stories, and knowledge to the vast repository of civilization that is the internet:

Each of the teachers created her own individual blog, and they then created a group blog for the entire school titled, appropriately enough, Escuela 104 de Santa Lucía.

One teacher, who registered under the username "sancac", wrote:

Let me tell you that I am a first grade teacher at "Leticia Volpe School 104″ located in Santa Lucia, Uruguay. It is found between the streets R. Argentina, Tajes, and Brasil. It is a school with two shifts and a total of approximately 700 students. These students are my children ...

Another teacher, "ladelsanta" published a post with photos of nearby landmarks:

School 104 is found in the city of Santa Lucia, on the bank of the river with the same name. At its beginning it was a school only for boys, but with the passing of time that changed and it became the mixed school it currently is today. My mother once competed against this school, which she called "the big school" because it occupied a large space (which is now shared with the lyceum). To be highlighted in our city is the first hotel for tourists in this country, the Biltmore Hotel.

You can use Google's machine translation to read the rest of the teachers' entries.

The morning blogging workshop was facilitated by Pablo Flores and Mariel Cisneros Lopez, both professors from the Universidad de la República. But in the afternoon session, attended by over a dozen teachers, the university students took the lead, facilitating an outstanding workshop that got the teachers enthusiastic about the possibilities of blogging in the classroom. Flor de Ceibo will continue to organize expeditions to primary schools across the country in order to show teachers and students how they can share their stories, articles, and homework assignments online by using the EduBlog platform. Later in the year, with the financial support from their Rising Voices microgrant, they will organize a competition which awards prizes to students who publish the best entries about particular topics chosen by a committee of judges.

This article, by David Sasaki, was originally published on Risisng Voices and is republished here with David's permission.

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Hi David!

Great article. It nicely presents the success of the XO as hardware, and quite accurately (in my opinion) indicates that harware “was probably the easiest piece of the puzzle”. Uruguay appears indeed to have been quite successful in setting up connectivity and infrastructure.

You mention in passing another area, one we hear very little of, maybe because it has not been as successful? “how teachers and students were incorporating … into the classroom environment”, “how to implement the laptops into their curricula and classrooms”.
Please, could you tell us more? Beyond a few marvellous anecdotes here and there it almost seems as if learning connected to the curriculum is not happening across the board.
It might have been good you visited a school that has had the XOs beyond the honeymoon effect, and you could tell us about, hopefully, success in these machines having some results in actual learning happening in the classroom, about which so far there seem to be no detailed, factual reports, from anywhere (I cannot count the “50% improvement in reading” that supposedly happened in Peru - claim that had no evidence attached).

Please, this is VERY important, especially as many of us are waiting to see XOs actually help toward actual, measurable learning.

thank you

Hola, muchachos. ¡Ay, que bueno!

I have been waiting to see Edublog or something like it for years. I will be particularly happy when we can see the students blogging. We need to duplicate this in every country doing one-to-one computing, so that children can tell the rest of the world what is going on, and thus find out from the rest of the world what is going on.

Next should be to design methods for student collaborations between schools and between countries. The possibilities beggar description.